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appeared, the papilla acustica basilaris ; apparatus for conveying the 
waves in the air directly to the membranous ear was developed ; and 
thus the power of appreciating the movements we call sound was 
acquired." ' E. C. S. 

/ limiti del pudore nelVuomo e nella donna. Pio Viazzi. Riv. mens, 
di Psich. forense, Antrop. crim., ecc. (Napoli), Vol. I (1898), pp. 
In this article, Viazzi, the author of a work on " Sexual Criminals," 
in which he sustained in detail the view that woman has a greater 
sense of shame than man, abandons that opinion, returning to the 
conviction of Sergi, that by reason of her less amorous sensibility, 
woman has necessarily less sense of shame than man, though she 
seems to evince and to display more. Woman's use of shame as a 
means of seduction, — shame in the sense of hiding or avoiding what 
would excite repugnance or disgust and endanger her amorous 
conquests ; the graver consequences for her of the coitus and the 
social consequences of unchastity and infidelity, which cause not a 
little calculation to enter into her sense of shame, until ultimately it 
departs from the sphere of feeling and enters the region of deliberate 
reasoning as to consequences of lack of shame ; the greater interest 
woman has over man in showing herself modest and shamefaced — all 
this lessens the amount of real shame-sense to be attributed to the 
female sex. A great deal of her apparent shame is merely the clever 
psychical counterfeit. The pallid frigidity of woman on certain occa- 
sions, may be the shadow of shame, but only the ghostly shade. 
Man's wider range of sexual reactions (shown also in the pathological 
side of love and its fetishisms) carries with it a greater bulk of shame. 
Low-necked dresses and exposed breasts still wait their anolognes in 
the drawing room and the theater from men. Women are led to be 
shameless more easily than men, and shameless in public. For evolu- 
tionary reasons, a deeply-felt sense of shame, an organic sense of it are 
naturally stronger in the sex, whose ego is best protected and 
defended. " A. F. C. 

II dolore nelV educazione. L. M. Billia. Nuovo Risorgimento,Vol. 
VIII (1898), pp. 187-193- 
The question whether man is free or not seems to be settled by the 
answer to the question : Can he inflict pain upon himself for a certain 
end? Not every pain, or all pain is educative, but without pain there 
can be no greatness, no virtue, no true happiness, no work, no science, 
no education. Study is pain, thought is pain, pain is virtue. 

A. F. C. 
The Origin of the Family. H. Soi,otaroff. American Anthropol- 
ogist, Vol. XI (1898), pp. 229-242. 
The primary form of the family, according to M. Solotaroff, is "the 
mother free to contract or dissolve sexual bonds — and the group of 
children resulting from these sexual relations." The assertion of 
man's bio-psychic activities and individualities, and the growth, with 
the vicissitudes of environments of the need of sexual favors, help 
and protection for herself and her children " have led the woman 
slowly out of bondage of economic care for her family group, but led 
her into marital bondage, while the most powerful tendency toward 
socialization among primitive men, expressing itself in various ways, 
has incidentally expressed itself, also, in occasional sexual permis- 
cuity as the outcome of the ecstacies of play — one of the most potent 
instincts of the social sentiment." In his general views the author 
approaches Westermarck, rejecting the theory of primitive promis- 
cuities. ' A. F. C.